VOYAGE ESTIMATES 105 time occupied. If, for example, the vessel is proceeding from Cardiff to Rio (5,035 miles) the time occupied would be approximately 24-25 days. Secondly, the master has now to provide bunkers for a 25 day trip, assuming that he will re-bunker at port of destination. The amount of fuel burned by a steamer per day differs according to the type of vessel; for a vessel of 10,000 tons the figure may be taken here to be 25 tons per day. This makes the total fuel burned 625 tons. Allowing a safety margin of 5 days, 750 tons could be bunkered for this trip. Pro- vision must be made for delay due to stress of weather, and other unforeseen circumstances, and an allowance of 5-6 tons per day for lying to in port must also be made. A third point that has to be considered is the question of expense in connection with Port Charges, Cargo Charges, and Maintenance or Running Costs. It is as well to remember that the main Port Charge is usually either dock dues, river dues or harbour dues, accord- ing to the port visited, and in most ports of the world such dues are usually based on the net registered tonnage (N.R.T.) of the vessel, that is to say, so much per N.R.T, In U.K. ports the vessel will have to pay ligM dues also based on N.RT. and at a great number of ports pilotage, and possibly towage charges will be incurred, and usually an agency fee must be allowed for. Under Cargo Charges will come stevedores* charges for loading or discharging and tallying, but whether these appear on the estimate will depend upon the terms of the C/P, which may provide for free loading and/or dis- charging. Maintenance or Running Costs will include such items as provisions, deck and engine stores, insurance, wages, allow- ance for repairs, etc., and the shipowner or broker should know the average daily cost of these items. Commissions payable must also be calculated in the estimate, and very often an allowance for depreciation is included.